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Creator Nationality: African; North African; Egyptian
Creator Dates/Places: Egypt, New Kingdom, Dynasty 18, reign of Amenhotep
Creator Active Place: Egypt, New Kingdom, Dynasty 18, reign of Amenhotep
Creator Name-CRT: Egypt, New Kingdom, Dynasty 18, reign of Amenhotep III, 1391-1353 BC
Title: Wild-Bull Hunt Scarab of Amenhotep III
Title Type: Primary
View: Full View
Creation Start Date: -139
Creation End Date: -135
Creation Date: 1391-1353 BC
Object Type: Costume and Jewelry
Classification Term: Scarabs
Materials and Techniques: Steatite
Dimensions: Overall: 6.56cm x 2.46cm
AMICA Contributor: The Cleveland Museum of Art
Owner Location: Cleveland, Ohio, USA
ID Number: 1984.36
Credit Line: Gift of Betty and Max Ratner
Provenance: Purchased from Edward H. Merrin Gallery
Context: Amenhotep III was extremely fond of publicity. On five separate occasions in the first eleven years of his reign he issued a series of large commemorative scarabs detailing important events in his life: his marriages (to his chief wife, Queen Tiy--who is named of all the scarabs--and to a foreign princess, Gilukhepa), his sporting achievement (the 18th Dynasty pharaohs were avid sportsment), and his irrigation project in northern Upper Egypt. These scarabs were then circulated throughout the empire, from Syria to the Sudan. Over one hundred examples survive of one series that record the number of lions killed by the king (102) in his first ten years of rule. The wild bull hunt series is the rarest of all--only four other examples are known--and bearsthe longest inscription, of which the Cleveland example has the best-preserved text. "Regnal year 2 under the majesty of the Horus Strong-bull-appearing-in-truth, Two Ladies establishing-laws, Quieting-the-two-lands, Golden Horus Great-of-strength. Smiting-the-Asiatics, king of Upper and Lower Egypt, lord of the two lands of Nebmaatre, son of Re Amenhotep, ruler of Thebes, given life, and the great royal Wife Tiy, may she live like Re. "A wonder that befell his majesty. One came to his majesty saying,'There are wild bulls upon the desert of the region of Shetep' [in the Wadi Natrun, northwest of Cairo]. His majesty sailed downstream in the royal bark 'Appearing in truth' at the time of evening, making good time, arriving in peace at the region of Shetep at the time of morning. His majesty appeared in his chariot with his whole army in back on him. One instructed the officers and private soldiers in their entirety and the children of the nursery to keep watch over these wild bulls. Then his majesty commanded to cause that one surround these wild bulls with an enclosure with a ditch. His majesty proceeded against all these wild bulls. The number thereof: 170 wild bulls. The number his majesty took in hunting on this day: 56 wild bulls. "His majesty waited four days on account of the need to give rest to his horses. His majesty appeared in the chariot. The number of bulls he took in hunting: 40 wild bulls. Total of wild bulls: 96."
AMICA ID: CMA_.1984.36
AMICA Library Year: 1999
Media Metadata Rights:
Copyright, The Cleveland Museum of Art
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