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Creator Nationality: European; Southern European; Greek
Creator Name-CRT: Greek
Title: The Ganymede Jewelry
Title Type: Object name
View: Full View
Creation Start Date: -33
Creation End Date: -30
Creation Date: ca. 330-300 B.C.
Object Type: Costume and Jewelry
Classification Term: Gold and Silver
Materials and Techniques: Gold, rock crystal, emerald
Dimensions: L. of necklace 13 in. (32.99 cm); H. of earrings 2 3/8 in. (6 cm); W. of bracelets 3 1/8 in. (8 cm); W. of fibulae 1 15/16 in. (5 cm); H. of ring 13/16 in. (2.1 cm)
AMICA Contributor: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Owner Location: New York, New York, USA
ID Number: 37.11.8-.17
Credit Line: Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1937
The pieces in this group are said to have been found together in Macedonia, near Thessaloniki, before 1913. The assemblage forms an impressive parure (matched set) - earrings, necklace, fibulae (pins), bracelets, and a ring - but it is not certain that they belong together, for the pieces do not show a clear uniformity of style.
The gold strap necklace, dated circa 300 B.C., is made of three double loop-in-loop chains with double interlinking and a fringe of beechnut pendants. The terminals take the form of an ivy or grape leaf and have a border of beaded wire and a rosette in the center. Strap necklaces have been found in many areas of the Greek world, including southern Italy, Asia Minor, and the Northern Pontus region (around the Black Sea).
The superb gold earrings, dated circa 330-300 B.C., consist of a large honeysuckle palmette below which hangs a finely worked three-dimensional figure of the Trojan prince Ganymede in the clutches of Zeus, who has assumed the guise of an eagle. Zeus coveted Ganymede for his beauty, and carried him off to Mount Olympos to be a cupbearer for the gods. The pendants are sculptural masterpieces in miniature, no doubt reflecting in their basic conception a famous large- scale bronze group of the same subject, made by Leochares in the first half of the fourth century B.C. The airborne theme is ingeniously adapted here to an object that hangs freely in space.
The rock-crystal hoops of the bracelets (ca. 330-300 B.C.) have been carefully cut, carved, and polished to produce a twisted appearance, highlighted by wire bindings fitted into the valleys. The rams' heads emerge from long elaborate collars decorated with three friezes enclosed within bands of darts and bordered by plain beaded wire. The upper frieze, an ivy chain on a vine, is tied at the center with a Herakles knot and bears four bunches of grapes; the middle frieze has palmettes with pointed leaves; the third frieze, a palmette complex.
The two pairs of gold fibulae, of Macedonian-type, date to 330-300 B.C. Such fibulae (pins), which belong to a northern Greek type characterized by "paddle-wheel" decoration, were usually worn in sets of six. Two more matching fibulae have been identified, one in Berlin and one in the Gans collection. Each hinge plate, all produced with the same die, is decorated with the head of a woman wearing a lion skin. She can be identified as either Omphale, the queen of Lydia, wearing Herakles' lion skin, or Artemis, goddess of the hunt.
The toothed setting of the gold ring holds a fine-colored but flawed cabochon emerald. A similar ring was found at Derveni in a tomb of the late fourth century B.C. Emeralds first appeared in jewelry at this time and probably came from mines in the eastern Egyptian desert, though it is possible that some came from the Ural Mountains.
AMICA ID: MMA_.37.11.8-.17
AMICA Library Year: 2000
Media Metadata Rights:
Copyright The Metropolitan Museum of Art
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