At first glance, this work lacks refinement and displays somewhat exhibitionist brushwork, but it is noteworthy because of the artist's creativity in handling rather traditional subject matter. Chang manipulated the ink with great dexterity and spontaneity to create stimulating visual structures. The artist imbued his forms with exceptional vitality, which augments the visual tension between his highly abstract natural images.
The 17th century was very disruptive to large segments of Chinese society following the fall of the Ming dynasty to Manchu troops. Some scholars reacted against artistic orthodoxy by placing greater emphasis on individual, if not eccentric, compositions and brushwork. Some of these traits can be seen here in Chang's energetic ink rendering.